Instructions for beginner winegrowers: how to propagate grapes by layering in summer
Reproduction of grapes by layering allows you to get new plants in a short time. The method ensures the preservation of the characteristics and properties of the mother plant, good survival rates, and rapid entry into the fruiting period.
Layers are rooted vines that have formed near the main bush. They get nutrients and water from it, they have their own root system. How to take a shoot and root it, you will learn from the article.
The content of the article
- Is it possible to propagate grapes by layering in summer
- Optimal timing for summer grape breeding
- Suitable grape varieties
- Selection and preparation of layers
- Planting after rooting
- Breeding features depending on the type of grape
- Further care
- Tips from experienced winegrowers
Is it possible to propagate grapes by layering in summer
Yes, you can. Layers take root better in summer, as they are saturated with heat, sunlight and regularly supplied moisture.
Important! This method allows you to successfully propagate grape varieties that are difficult to root, for example, Delight, Friendship, Baikonur.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the method:
- old bushes are restored and propagated by layering;
- receive planting material for further disembarkation;
- increase the area of their own vineyard and profit from the sale of seedlings;
- retain the varietal characteristics of the mother vine;
- harvest in the first year after planting.
In this case, the layering takes root by 95%. The only drawback is that the young are very depleted of the mother plant.
Optimal timing for summer grape breeding
Experienced gardeners recommend propagating grapes in July, when the shoots are up to 2.5 m long.
So by the fall, a full-fledged root system will form in the young bush, and it will be ready to be separated from the main vine.
According to the lunar calendar 2020 favorable days for working with grapes are 5-7, 10-12, 15-16, 24-25 August.
In June 2021 — 2-3, 6-8, 11-13, 16, 21-25, 29-30.
In July 2021 - 4-8, 13-15, 19-23, 26-28 and 31.
In August 2021 — 1-6, 10-12, 15, 17-19, 23-24, 30-31.
Suitable grape varieties
For this breeding method, grape varieties are chosen that are resistant to diseases, pests, frost, drought, and sudden changes in the weather.
The higher the stability coefficient, the lower the value.
There are varieties:
- with 1 point - rarely affected by powdery mildew, gray rot, mildew, have excellent survival rates;
- 2 - highly resistant and easily rooted varieties;
- 3 - average rates of susceptibility;
- 4 - exposed to diseases up to 50%;
- 5 are the weakest varieties.
For propagation of grapes by layering, varieties with 1 and 2 points are preferred. They form easily in the northern regions, in the Urals.
Selection and preparation of layers
Choose a healthy shoot without obvious signs of damage from 2 to 2.5 m long. It is good if it is a powerful top and growing from the base of the bush.
The escape is taken to the side. Remove the leaves from the part that they plan to dig in.
Reference. The preparation of the shoots depends on the way they are rooted. The main thing is to choose a strong and high-yielding variety as a mother bush.
Ways to root them
Part of the grape bush is added in several ways. The type of layering affects the breeding process.
Features of the rooting of horizontal shoots by the underground method:
- Choose 1 lateral young vine at the base of the bush.
- Dig a trench 20 cm deep and 50-100 cm long. Fill it with a mixture prepared from equal parts of humus and fertile soil. Add a 2 L can of wood ash, 20 g of superphosphate.
- The cuttings are placed in the trench so that the buds remain on the surface. Fix it with studs.
- After the appearance of young shoots 10 cm long, their bases are covered with moist soil, and the dug-in vine is completely covered with soil.
Rooting arcuate layers:
- The vine is laid in the soil and only its curved part is pressed to the ground.
- The parts are fixed with pins.
- The top is brought to the surface and tied to a support.
In this case, a whole grape sleeve is used, from which up to 20 new seedlings are obtained in the fall.
Green layering is rooted as follows:
- At the beginning of May, during pruning, 2-3 grape shoots are left, which are easily bent.
- When the shoots reach a height of 1 m, they are cleaned of leaves and antennae.
- Dig small trenches 20 cm deep. Pour 1 bucket of water into them and place the shoots in an arc.
- Sprinkle with earth. The tops are raised and tied to the support.
To root vertical layers, use the following instruction:
- During spring pruning, the shoots are cut so that 2 eyes are preserved on them.
- They are waiting for 20 cm long shoots to grow from the buds.
- Near their base, a hill is formed from nutritious soil: 1 part of humus, 1 part of fertile soil, 1 liter can of wood ash, 10 g of superphosphate.
- Hilling is repeated after the layers have grown another 20 cm.
- Pinch the tops, leaving 3 pairs of leaves on them.
The hilling method is suitable for propagation of bushes in which, when planting, the "head" was placed 30 cm below the edges of the groove.
Features of the rooting of shoots by the katavlak method:
- Dig a long trench 50 cm wide and 20 cm deep.
- The bottom is well loosened, 1 part of humus and 1 part of fertile soil are added.
- The roots of the parent bush are exposed and cut, leaving only the heel roots.
- Strong annual shoots are left on the vine. The eyes are removed in those places that will be dug in.
- They lay the bush in a ditch, bending one shoot with a loop. They lead him under the vine so that the end comes out next to him.
- The rest of the shoots are brought to the surface of the soil, where a new plant will form. They are cut off, leaving 2-3 buds on each.
- The trench is sprinkled with soil, tamped and watered.
The katavlak method involves using the entire bush. In this case, new plants will take all the forces of the mother. Shoots take root by the end of summer.
Planting after rooting
The shoots are fully ripe by mid-September. The cuttings are dug up and divided with pruning shears into several separate self-rooted seedlings.
They are planted in new places that are well warmed up by the sun's rays.
How to propagate grapes by layering in summer:
- Prepare holes 60 x 60 cm in size, 1 m deep.At the bottom, drainage is made from pebbles, pieces of brick or crushed stone with a layer of at least 10 cm.
- Mix 0.5 parts of sand with 1 part of crushed stone and 3 parts of fertile soil. Add 1 liter can of wood ash. Fill the wells, carefully spilling each layer (25 cm) with water.
- Place seedlings. Planting depth - 45 cm. The topsoil is well compacted and watered.
The seedlings are looked after like an adult vineyard. They water it 2 times a week, loosen the soil, remove weeds, examine the bushes for emerging pests and signs of disease.
Breeding features depending on the type of grape
Grapes can be dessert and technical. The first type is suitable for the manufacture of wine products, and the second for home use or sale. Propagation of grapes by layering is carried out for technical varieties.
Early ripening is propagated by the underground method, mid-ripening - vertical, late-ripening - horizontal. So the layers will have time to form the root system before the frost begins.
Depending on the region
The method of dividing grapes by layering is suitable for southern regions where there is a long growing season and warm summers.
Residents of the northern regions are better off using other methods, for example, cuttings.
After planting, seedlings need regular and abundant watering. The first procedure is performed after 10-15 days, repeated every 2 weeks. 5-10 liters of warm settled water are poured under the bush.
- The plant is fed in mid-September with a mixture of 10 g of potassium sulfide and 20 g of superphosphate. They bring 2 g under each bush.
- The eyes are removed, leaving 2 buds. This sets the direction of growth. The tops are pinched.
- For the winter, seedlings are covered with straw, spruce branches, spunbond or slate. The procedure is carried out when all the leaves have fallen and after the onset of the first frost.
- The next year, the bushes are examined for pests and diseases. Watering, pruning, feeding.
Tips from experienced winegrowers
Reproduction by layering has its own subtleties.
We recommend that you read the advice of experienced gardeners:
- This method is used to divide grapes in warm regions. In northern cities, the summer is short, so new plants do not have time to take root.
- For planting seedlings, preference is given to well-lit areas, protected from drafts.
- Use only fertile soil. Otherwise, the layers will not be fully saturated with nutrients.
- For reproduction, take a vine 2-2.5 m long. Measure it with a centimeter or tape measure.
- The branches are tied up with twine, ropes, thin patches of fabric, carefully so as not to damage the leaves and shoots.
- Provide proper plant care.
- During the transplantation of rooted cuttings, they do not fuss and do not rush. There have been cases when shoots are damaged and a weak root system is formed.
Reproduction of grapes by layering is a laborious process that requires care and accuracy. Varieties that are not suitable for grafting are chosen as the mother bush.
It is better for beginners to choose the underground method for dividing shoots, since it is considered the easiest. After rooting, be sure to take care of new bushes, as for adult plants.