We save the tomato crop on our own - tomato pests in the greenhouse and methods of dealing with them
Gardeners often wonder how to get a rich tomato crop and protect it from the invasion of pests. There are many ways to control pests. However, not all of them are equally effective. The article contains the best protection methods that have been tested and approved by many summer residents.
The content of the article
What pests threaten tomatoes in the greenhouse
Greenhouse plants are protected from the cold, wind and scorching sunlight. But in such conditions, many pests successfully live and reproduce, destroying the entire tomato crop. To combat them, you need to determine who exactly hit the tomatoes, and choose a specific means of influence.
It is a pest that affects a wide variety of crops. This insect and tomato bushes do not bypass their attention.
Scoop - a caterpillar that emerges from eggs. Eggs are laid by butterflies, leaving them on any part of the plant. The transformation from egg to caterpillar occurs in 3-5 days. Caterpillars eat almost everything that catches their eye, but they are especially fond of tomatoes and their stems. The caterpillars eat up huge holes in these vegetables, which causes them to rot.
A microclimate is created in the greenhouse, in which another dangerous pest feels good - whitefly... Warm air, increased humidity and succulent plants all attract insects and create a favorable environment for breeding and feeding.
In appearance, whiteflies look like small light-colored moths. They suck the sap from the plant, which gradually begins to wilt, becomes weak, and all its parts take on a sickly appearance.
The difficulty of diagnosis is that the whitefly is skillfully hiding. It settles on the inside of the leaves. Since the size of the insect is very small, it is difficult to notice it. In favorable conditions, the insect multiplies intensively and affects the plant even more.
This is a small, bright orange caterpillar 5-7 cm long. Most of the caterpillars settle on plants in April. In June, they begin to lay eggs, from which new wireworms then appear.
The larvae are the most harmful to tomatoes. They settle on young and fragile parts of the tomato, begin to eat them, making small holes in the foliage. The plant begins to wither, turn yellow and dry out gradually. Fungal infection settles in open areas of the plant damaged by wireworm. This contributes to an even faster wilting of the bushes.
One of the worst pests that can settle on tomatoes is spider mite. The most comfortable conditions for its existence are maintained in the greenhouse - warm and high humidity.
The presence of a tick can be determined by the presence of tiny white spots and cobwebs on the back of the sheet. Signs of spider mite infestation include unreasonable twisting of leaves, as well as the general painful appearance of the plant. Over time, the diseased plant becomes weaker and dies.
There are many types bedbugs- defenders. The most dangerous bugs are green and gray. Their dimensions are 5-7 mm, some reach 2 cm. The body is flattened, dark gray.A distinctive feature is that from touching the bugs begin to emit an unpleasant odor, which is not easy to wash off.
Bedbugs dig into juicy tomato stalks and suck out the juice. In parallel with this, they inject their poison into the cavity of the stem and foliage. After such manipulations, spots remain on the stems that are characteristic of the damage by the shit bug.
The body of the bear is dirty brown in color, there are horns on the head. The limbs are small and have tentacles. The insect looks like a caterpillar, reaching 5-7 cm in size.
The bear can destroy tomatoes as soon as you plant the seeds. Most often, it destroys the root part, which will lead to a gradual deterioration in the general condition of the tomatoes. First, they stop growing, then turn yellow and die.
A dangerous pest that can completely destroy the plantings. Aphids settle on the inside of the leaf. Later, it spreads over the entire surface of the plant, fruits begin to die. Aphid leaves behind excrement that resembles black sugar-like clots. They attract other pests like flies and ants.
Signs of insect damage to tomatoes
The main signs that are observed when infected by insects:
- cessation of plant growth;
- yellowing of some areas;
- curling leaves;
- general painful appearance;
- cessation of fruit growth;
- falling off parts of the plant or its fruits;
- the presence of unknown insects or eggs.
If you find at least one of the above symptoms on your plant, you must immediately start diagnosing the disease and selecting a drug for treatment.
How to deal with pests and diseases in a greenhouse
Primary disinfection of seeds before planting, soil preparation and compliance with crop rotation rules will save plants from many diseases. Every year growers recommend replacing the top layer of soil in the greenhouse.
Timely watering, pinching and feeding are also prerequisites. But it is possible to completely rid tomatoes of pests only by processing with special means.
How and what to process
Experts advise treating tomatoes with special solutions throughout the entire period of their growth. Treatment is carried out with fungicidal preparations. But this method of pest control must be stopped 2-3 weeks before the start of fruit ripening.
Important... The chemicals used for pest control are hazardous to human skin and mucous membranes. Be sure to use protective equipment and thoroughly clean your hands and clothing after use.
The choice of pest control method is based on the extent of the infestation and the timing of the problem. At the initial stages, folk remedies are permissible, but in case of a serious defeat, one cannot do without the use of pesticides.
These methods are used when others have proven ineffective. This is due to the fact that chemicals can get on the ripe fruits of the plant. By eating such tomatoes, you run the risk of poisoning.
Attention... Do not exceed the applied amount of the drug, as this can lead to plant poisoning and wilting.
Chemicals are presented in large quantities in specialized stores. The most popular are Iskra, Molniya, Biotlin, Decis, Anti-tick, Karate, Inta-Vir.
Folk remedies are considered one of the most favorite among summer residents. They do not poison the plant, and the ingredients from which the solutions are made are usually found in everyone at home.
How to spray tomatoes:
- 1/2 cup of baking soda for 5 liters of water;
- 5 ml of iodine in combination with 5 liters of water;
- tincture of garlic in water;
- 1 liter of kefir, diluted in 10 liters of water.
This is the most environmentally friendly method, which involves adding other insects to the pests that have appeared. These can be ladybugs or thrips, which eat harmful insects.There are preparations based on a fungus with which a plant is treated to destroy pests.
This type of struggle involves the timely weeding of the soil in the greenhouse and its loosening. Loosening saturates the soil with sufficient oxygen, which strengthens the plants. Weeding destroys weeds and removes decaying parts - a breeding ground for pests.
Plant infection prevention measures are always cheaper and less labor-intensive than treatment.
Protection against diseases and the appearance of pests is provided by:
- disinfection of seeds and soil;
- timely removal of diseased plants;
- regular weeding;
- the use of solutions to protect against pests;
- regulation of the microclimate inside the greenhouse;
- timely watering.
Timely identification of tomato pests in the greenhouse is the key to a successful fight against it. Therefore, it is important to regularly inspect all parts of the tomatoes and properly care for the plants. When choosing a control method, rely on the specifics of the pest and the degree of damage to the plantings.