We fight tomato cladosporium disease in a greenhouse easily and effectively: the best methods and recommendations of summer residents with experience
Getting a rich harvest is the desire of every vegetable grower, but, unfortunately, not everything depends on the efforts made. It so happens that preventive measures are taken, but the plants still get sick. Among the most common diseases of solanaceous plants grown in closed areas is brown olive spot, or cladosporium.
From the article you will learn what kind of disease it is - tomato cladosporium disease in a greenhouse, how to treat it and how to protect the crop from death. The material contains advice from experienced summer residents and photos of the manifestation of the disease on plants.
The content of the article
What is this disease
Cladosporium is often referred to as brown spot. The disease belongs to fungal, and can massively affect plants. Due to the disease, there is a risk of losing 50% of the crop. Cladosporiosis often affects seedlings grown in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
The disease is almost impossible to remove, since its pathogen is able to maintain its vital activity for 10 months, even in unfavorable weather. It can overwinter in the ground and in the new season re-infect seedlings. The fungus spreads in the form of dust with spores - it can be brought by the wind from a neighboring area. One of the conditions for the spread of the disease is high humidity.
How does it affect tomatoes
One infected bush can kill the entire seedlings... The symptoms of cladosporiosis cannot be confused with another disease: brown spots and gray bloom form on the leaves, then they begin to turn yellow and fall off. The stem and fruits remain intact, but the plants begin to suffer, having lost their green mass.
Tomatoes do not ripen, they begin to rot and shrivel. Bulging brown spots may develop on large tomatoes. At the first symptoms of the disease, immediately begin treatment.
Symptoms and external signs
Cladosporium develops gradually, the disease can be recognized during the period of flowering and fruit formation. Already in July, you can see characteristic light spots on the leaves, a change in their color to brown indicates the beginning of the plant wilting process.
If you do not start treatment, the surface of the leaf is compacted and becomes velvety to the touch. Then the green mass of the plant falls off, which affects the process of fruit formation.
Description of the stages of development of the disease:
- Initial - symptoms appear during flowering. Light green spots appear on the outside of the leaf, and a light gray bloom forms on the inside.
- Progressive - the upper leaves are affected, but the stem and fruits remain intact. The surface of the leaf becomes denser, becomes velvety, the green mass of the plant loses its shape and color. The spots on the leaves darken and turn brown, their more intense color is observed on the inner surface of the leaf.
- Active - leaves fall, the plant withers, the fungus infects the fruits. No method can save seedlings.
Reasons for infection
Cladosporium infection most often affects plants grown in unheated greenhouses or greenhouses. The first symptoms appear in the second half of summer, in the southern regions - in spring.
Causative agent of the disease
The causative agent of cladosporium is a fungus Cladosporium fulvum Cooke... It is distinguished by its vitality: it can withstand both cold and heat for 10 months.Infection occurs when the mycelium of the microorganism enters the plant. The pathogen is constantly evolving, adapting to the drugs.
The fungus, getting on the plants, begins to germinate. The manifestation of its vital activity can be seen in the middle of the growing season. Weakened leaves are affected first.
Important! In addition to leaves, the fungus affects flowers and young ovaries.
Terms of distribution
The fungus reproduces by conidia (spores), which, due to their lightness, are carried by the wind. The source of infection can also be ordinary objects on which the pathogen has gotten: garden tools, shoes, water for irrigation.
Feature. The disease is not typical for seedlings grown outdoors.
Fungal spores become active at elevated humidity levels, which is not uncommon for greenhouses. Another factor that stimulates the active phase is temperature drops. The optimal indicator for the life of the fungus is + 22 ... + 25C with a humidity of 80%. If the humidity drops to 70%, the reproduction of microorganisms stops.
How and what to treat
Treatment of cladosporiosis directly depends on the degree of spread of the disease. If you started fighting the disease immediately after identifying light spots, the chances of success are great. If you ignore the disease, you are likely to lose your entire crop.
There are two ways to deal with diseases: folk remedies and chemistry. An integrated approach is used for effective treatment. At the first stage, you can cut off the affected leaves and carry out treatment with means, when brown spots appear, the plant is unlikely to be helped by anything, it is removed from the garden along with the roots.
Chemical preparations effectively fight against the causative agent of cladosporiosis, they are used even when the plants are severely affected by the disease. Before use, carefully read the instructions and do not violate the recommendations of the manufacturers.
Processing is best done in the evening, it is important that during this period there is no rain or strong wind. You can repeat the procedure in two weeks.
Important! Treat with chemicals at least one month before harvest.
A wide range of fungicides are suitable for the treatment of brown spot:
- Abiga Peak;
- Ditan NeoTek 75;
- copper oxychloride.
The methods used by the people are effective only at the beginning of the disease; it will not be possible to cure plants from brown olive spot at a progressive stage.
Best of all, the following remedies help to neutralize the fungus:
- milk whey - pour 1 liter of whey into a bucket of water, the solution is suitable for spraying;
- infusion of garlic and iodine - for 1 bucket of water you will need 30 drops of iodine, 1 clove of garlic or 500 g of shooters;
- chloride iodine - the product is suitable for pre-planting soil and seedling treatment. In a bucket of water, 30 g of potassium chloride and 40 drops of iodine are dissolved. During the disinfection of the soil, the solution must reach a depth of 10 cm;
- a solution of milk with iodine - you need 0.5 liters of milk, 5 liters of water and 15 drops of iodine;
- decoction wood ash - Boil 300 g of ash in 10 liters of water for 25 minutes, then leave to infuse for two days;
- manganese solution;
- 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid;
- colloidal sulfur solution - 3 tbsp. dry matter is mixed with 1 tbsp. copper sulfate and 3 tbsp. polycarbacin. The concentrate is diluted in 10 l of water and 2 tbsp is added. liquid soap;
- yeast - for spraying, use a solution prepared from a dry or wet product.
Attention! For greater effectiveness, liquid soap can be added to the finished solution. Soapy water protects against pests and promotes plant health.
At the first signs of illness, you should check the thickness of the beds. If, during planting in the ground, the plants were planted in a heap, it is worth thinning out the area, so that air can circulate freely between the bushes. The distance between low-growing tomatoes should be 40-50 cm, the beds should be at least 50-70 cm.
Effective protection against nightshade diseases - compliance with the rules of crop rotation. You cannot plant tomatoes from year to year on the same plot. The causative agent of cladosporiosis is able to stay in the ground for up to a year and infect new seedlings. It is recommended to plant tomatoes on the previous beds only after 3-4 years.
It is better to prevent the appearance of the disease than to try to cure it later. In the case of brown olive spot, the most effective measure is to maintain conditions in the greenhouse that are unfavorable for the fungus.
- maintain optimal humidity, temperature and lighting indicators;
- remove plant residues and debris after harvest;
- regularly treat the frame of the greenhouse with disinfectants;
- carry out pre-planting soil treatment;
- follow crop rotation;
- choose varieties that are resistant to disease for planting;
- when planting seedlings, keep the distance between the bushes;
- do not flood plants;
- mulch soil with sawdust, chopped grass and plastic wrap;
- regularly ventilate the room or make a ventilation system.
Disease resistance of tomatoes is the main factor in protection against brown spot. Breeders are constantly developing new crop hybrids that not only have high yields, but also a survival rate.
These varieties and hybrids include:
- Pink Paradise F1;
- Pink Magic F1;
- Our Masha F1;
- Vitador F1;
- Space Star F1;
- Swallow F1;
- Pinky F1;
- Business Lady F1.
For the prevention of cladosporia, drugs are used: "Fitosporin-M", "Pseudobacterin-2", "Integral", "Gamair" and "Alirin-B". After the first treatment, the repeated procedure is carried out after 20 days.
You can increase the resistance of tomatoes to cladosporia by treating the plants with herbal infusion: nettle and dandelion. Plants are crushed and garlic plates are added to them, after which the ingredients are poured with water and insisted for two days.
Experienced summer residents noticed that the fungus perishes from such pharmaceutical preparations: Trichopolum, Metronidazole and Furacilin.
Rules for the use of drugs:
- At the beginning of the season, treat the seedlings with "Metronidazole" - dissolve 13-15 tablets of the drug in 1 liter of water. The solution must be thoroughly wiped off all tomato leaves.
- Trichopolum is suitable for regular preventive treatment. The procedure is carried out every 10-14 days - 1 tablet of the drug is dissolved in 1 liter of water. The tool not only kills the spores of the fungus, but also protects the tomatoes from re-infection.
- Tomatoes are treated with "Furacilin" three times during the entire growing season - 1 tablet of the drug is dissolved in 1 liter of water.
Cladosporium is a common nightshade disease that occurs in greenhouses and greenhouses. According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, the disease can be cured with the help of folk remedies. At the initial stage, they are effective, but with the further spread of the pathogen, chemicals will have to be used. A plant that has lost its leaves can no longer be saved - it is uprooted and burned.
Prevention is the best protection against disease, but sometimes it does not help completely eliminate the possibility of plant infection. Therefore, when choosing tomatoes, it is better to give preference to varieties that are resistant to cladosporium.