What are the diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse and the fight against them
It is believed that tomatoes are a capricious crop that needs constant care. Under unfavorable circumstances, tomatoes are often infected with fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, which are extremely difficult to treat. All this is true, but these problems do not stop real summer residents. Yes, it is not easy to cure diseases, but it is quite possible if they are detected in time and appropriate measures are taken. In addition, competent prevention will reduce the likelihood of infection to a minimum.
The article will tell you how to timely recognize tomato diseases, how to deal with them and how to prevent their appearance.
The content of the article
- Bacterial diseases
- Fungal diseases
- Viral diseases
- Non-communicable diseases
- Disease prevention measures
Bacterial diseases are hardly treatable. If such a disease has attacked the seedlings, then the diseased bushes are removed from the greenhouse. They treat only the initial stage of the lesion or are engaged in the prevention of young plantings.
Opening the greenhouse in the morning, the gardener is surprised to find a withered tomato bush. Disease affects plants literally overnight. A void or liquid forms inside the cut stem, and the inside turns brown.
A neglected disease cannot be treated. Affected plants are removed from the greenhouse and destroyed by burning outside the garden. Ash and the plants themselves cannot be used as fertilizer and in the compost pit.
The main way to combat bacteriosis is to prevent healthy plants.
- Plants are sprayed and the soil around them is watered with a solution: 10 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water.
- Tomatoes are treated with a different solution: two bottles of "Streptomycin" are diluted in 10 liters of water, add 15 g of quicklime blue stone. Repeat after three days.
Use store products:
- 20 ml "Fitolavin" for 10 liters of water. Plants spray and water the soil around.
- 125 ml "Baikal-EM" for 10 liters of water. The soil in the greenhouse is disinfected, spending 1 sq. m 2.5 l of the prepared solution.
Arises during the fruiting period. Depressed spots of emerald color appear on the stem, similar to ulcers. After a couple of days, they begin to darken and crack. This is the job of bacteria. If you press on this place, then white mucus will begin to flow out of the wound.
On the lower part of the bush, milky aerial roots appear, which eventually turn brown. The leaves lose their firmness and green color, starting to dry out. Brown streaks appear on the outside of the stem. This is how stem necrosis occurs.
The duration of the disease is 2-3 weeks. Then the plant dies in most cases.
It is impossible to save a tomato. It is removed from the garden and burned outside the territory, disinfecting healthy bushes and soil.
Pharmacy products are in a hurry to help. The soil is impregnated 15 cm with a solution of potassium permanganate: 10 g of potassium permanganate for 10 liters of water.
Places where diseased tomatoes grew are spilled with a solution: 20 ml of "Fitolavin-300" per 10 liters of water.
Fungal microorganisms have increased vitality.They withstand heat and cold perfectly. They successfully survive in the soil during severe frosts, and in spring they strike the harvest with renewed vigor. When dealing with it, special attention is paid to disinfecting the soil.
Late blight - a common disease of garden crops, especially dangerous for tomatoes. The word "late blight" itself means "destroying plant". There are 50 types of causative agents of this disease. Fighting them is difficult, but possible.
The first rule is to closely monitor the condition of the plants, starting in the middle of summer. Late blight is manifested by blackening of the leaves, then the fruit. The inflorescences turn yellow and fall off, preventing the fetus from setting. All plants in the greenhouse are affected in a couple of days. Therefore, it is important to notice the disease in time and start treating it. Pay attention to the photo.
Fight home remedies:
- Sprayed with milk whey diluted with water 1: 1, sometimes replaced with kefir. Then the solution is prepared from the ratio: 1 liter of kefir per 10 liters of water. It is used every day both for prophylaxis and for treatment.
- Another handy tool is soda. 2 tbsp. l. soda is diluted in 10 liters of water and a little liquid soap is added to keep the solution on the leaves. For a visible effect, the plants are treated every week.
- Salt is used for prophylaxis: 250 g is diluted in 10 liters of water. After drying, the salt forms a small film on the surface of the leaves and stem, due to which late blight does not penetrate deep into the plant.
If folk remedies no longer help, use chemistry:
- Spray with fungicide "HOM": dilute 40 g per 10 l of water. True, the drug is aimed more at prevention than at treatment. But there is a significant plus: the substance does not accumulate in the ground and plants, which means it is not addictive. It is used up to five times over the summer. Holds defense for up to two weeks, but is washed off by rain.
- They are treated with antibacterial "Furacilin": 10 tablets are crushed and diluted in 10 liters of water. Prepare immediately for the entire summer season. Apply three times over the summer.
- They are treated with a biological pesticide "Fitosporin": 2 tsp. 10 liters of water. The drug is safe for humans, penetrates into plant tissues and kills pathogenic bacteria. After application, the fruits can be eaten immediately. Plants are treated every 10 days.
Attention! If tomatoes and potatoes are planted side by side, process them together. Often late blight immediately affects potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants and cucumbers in one area.
Cladosporium- a fungal disease characterized by brown spot on seedlings. Practically not amenable to treatment, since the fungus that causes the disease is able to survive under adverse conditions (even in winter) for up to 10 months.
When gray bloom and brown spots form on the leaves, it's time to sound the alarm. Even one infected tomato bush can kill all seedlings. The disease does not touch the stems and fruits, but completely deprives the plant of greenery. What affects the fruits: they do not ripen, shrivel and begin to rot.
Completely affected bushes are removed from the greenhouse or greenhouse. If the plants are just showing signs of damage, then there is a chance to fight for the harvest.
Such methods will not help with the progressive stage of the disease, when the plant already has brown spots.
- Whey comes to the rescue: 1 liter per 10 liters of water. The solution is suitable for spraying.
- Potassium chloride is used to disinfect the soil: 30 g per 10 liters of water are dissolved and 40 drops of iodine. The soil is impregnated to a depth of at least 10 cm.
- If the soil is acidic, then a decoction of wood ash will help: boil 300 g of ash in 10 liters of water for 25 minutes, then insist for two days.
In the later stages of the disease and severe lesions of the bush, chemical agents are used. For processing, fungicides of a wide spectrum of action are used: "HOM", "Poliram", "Abiga-Peak", "Bravo", "Ditan NeoTek 75".It is cultivated late in the evening, when there is no hot sun, wind and rain, a month before harvest. Repeat every two weeks. The funds are diluted according to the instructions for use, observing the specified precautions.
Another of the most common fungal diseases of tomatoes is anthracnose... Affects all parts of the bush... On leaves and stems it appears as reddish-brown spots with a yellow border along the edge. Then they turn purple, darkening and rotting.
Round, "depressed" spots appear on the fruits, which also grow over time and begin to darken, acquiring a black color. The bushes themselves, as a result of damage to the root system, do not grow intensively, curl, the leaves turn yellow and fall off, the ovaries do not form or crumble.
Ripe tomatoes are more often affected. Moreover, it is mainly the fruits that touch the ground that get sick. At the top of the bush, the fruits remain uninfected.
Tomatoes affected by anthracnose can no longer be saved. The affected bushes are dug up and burned. Treatment is carried out at the first symptoms of the disease and is treated for prevention.
When a disease is detected, first use pharmaceutical products:
- The harvest is saved with the help of copper oxychloride: 40 g of the product is dissolved in 10 liters of water.
- The bushes are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux mixture or colloidal sulfur.
Special substances for combating fungus are most effective, but harmful to humans and animals:
- Means "Polyram". They are processed at a rate of 2.53 kg per hectare. 2-3 procedures are performed with an interval of 10 days.
- The fungus adapts to medications, so the drugs are changed from time to time. The Cumulus DF is doing well. It is suitable for treating tomatoes. Apply according to the instructions.
- More gentle means: "Gamair" and "Fitosporin-M" help to slow down the spread of anthracnose. The method of application is described in the instructions.
Viral diseases are no less dangerous for plants and are also almost impossible to cure.
If the leaves of tomatoes acquire a mosaic (variegated) color, alternating between dark green and light green areas, then an unpleasant disease called "mosaic" has visited the garden.
In the course of the development of the disease, other symptoms arise: the leaves are deformed and wrinkled, sometimes they acquire a threadlike or fern-like (rarely) shape, the fruits become smaller and ripen unevenly, the appearance of yellow spots on the fruits and leaves is allowed.
Enations are formed on the underside of the deformed leaves of threadlike outlines. These are outgrowths of a bowl-like shape with an average size of 1 cm. The appearance of outgrowths is a specific sign of TMV (tobacco mosaic virus), which indicates the development of the most harmful form of mosaic - enational.
Some foods from the refrigerator can save our harvest. True, everything depends on the stage of development of the disease.
- A solution of whey in a ratio of 1:10 with water is an effective way to fight the disease at the initial stage. The bushes are sprayed once every 7-10 days until a healthy color appears on the leaves.
- The whey is replaced with skim milk in the same proportion. Seedlings are processed once every 7 days. For effectiveness add 1 tbsp. l. urea.
At the dacha, they start their own first aid kit, which contains various means and solutions for providing first aid to the garden. The drug "Pharmayod-3" copes well with the disease. The bushes are sprayed with a 0.05% solution.
Chlorotic curl of leaves
A light green tomato bush with a curly top is the most characteristic sign of the disease. The growth of seedlings is greatly slowed down, the shoots are bare, the ovaries become hard and small with the development of the disease, new ones are not formed.
Curly hair lends itself well to treatment with folk remedies:
- A solution of onion peels helps a lot. The husk of 3-4 onions is steamed in 3 liters of water.When the mixture has cooled, add 5 drops of iodine. Seedlings are sprayed to prevent the spread of the virus to healthy shoots.
- 10 g of potassium permanganate are dissolved in 10 l of water. Spill the soil where the infected plants grew.
If there is no time to cure curliness for a long time, then chemistry will cope quickly and easily:
- Tomatoes are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. Processing is carried out once a week.
- Spill the soil in the greenhouse with a solution of the drug "Baikal-EM": 0.5 cups per 10 liters of water. Consumption per 1 sq. m of soil is 2.5 liters.
Such diseases occur with improper care of seedlings and the greenhouse as a whole.
Not always this disease easy to spot. It often infects tomatoes from the inside. They learn that the bush is sick only by cutting the fruit. In the middle of the vegetable, black rot is found, and it itself becomes tasteless and watery.
Brown spots sometimes appear on the stem near the peduncle. As the spots develop, they darken, become black, dry and slightly depressed. Over time, the skin on the fruit dries up and they acquire a dark brown color, tissue necrosis is aggravated. Occurs due to improper care and bad weather conditions.
When treating with popular methods, they always use what is at hand. Good wood ash obtained from burning wood (not grass) is sieved. Take two glasses of powder, pour 1 liter of boiling water, leave for about 30 minutes until the mixture cools down.
The resulting infusion is mixed with 10 liters of ordinary water. Pour 1 liter of the product under the root of each tomato. Such an infusion is used for foliar feeding, after adding 50-60 g of grated laundry soap per 10 liters of ash solution.
Professional tools work faster and more efficiently:
- Powder "Calcifol 25". Prepare a solution: 2-5 g of the drug per 1 liter of water. The leaves are sprayed 3-5 times from the moment the ovaries appear with an interval of 7-10 days.
- Means "Brexil Sa". Treatments are carried out with a 0.2% solution every 10-15 days after abundant watering.
- Calcium nitrate (calcium nitrate). To obtain a working fluid, take 20 g of calcium nitrate and 10 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water. Leaves are processed once every two weeks.
Swelling of leaves
A clear sign of the disease is growths in the form of warts on the upper and lower sides of the leaf. Even on the stems of tomatoes, these pimples are noticed. It is the new growing roots that die off. This is how oedema or leaf edema manifests itself. They are not bacteria or fungi. This is the so-called "dropsy", arising from improper, strong intra-root pressure, resulting from frequent and abundant watering.
To get rid of edema, the following procedures are performed:
- Thin the seedlings so that the air circulates better.
- The greenhouse is ventilated more often, and the greenhouse is opened for drying.
- Reduces the amount of irrigation and water consumption.
Disease prevention measures
An experienced summer resident knows that it is better to prevent any disease than to cure.
- If the cultivation and cultivation strip is susceptible to any kind of infection or, due to climatic conditions, the tomatoes are prone to spoilage and rotting, prevention attention should be paid even at the stage of planting seeds. Disinfection of the selected seeds before planting is carried out with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate and a solution of "Fitolavin". Dilute 2 ml of the preparation in 100 ml and soak the seeds for 1 hour.
- Pay attention to the choice of seeds that are resistant to fungi, viruses and bacteria.
- The neighborhood in the beds is of great importance. Potatoes are more susceptible to various diseases, and they themselves often act as a source of infection for other crops. Tomatoes are not planted near peppers and eggplants due to the similarity of diseases.
- Regularity and correctness of tomato care is paramount:
- daily airing of greenhouses;
- moderate moisture, no waterlogging;
- correct pinching;
- infrequent planting of tomatoes;
- timely weeding;
- destruction of the superficial last year's humus;
- disinfection of soil in autumn and spring before planting: 1% potassium permanganate or solution based on "Baikal-EM".
- Periodically carry out the disinfection of garden tools, for example, with the drug "Ecocid-S". Dilute 50 g of the product in 5 liters of warm water and spray the entire gardening equipment.
- Do not forget about feeding with potassium and phosphorus, spraying with immunomodulators. This increases the immunity of the bushes.
Prevention is considered the best method of dealing with any disease. Plants are “treated” at the stage of selecting varieties and disinfecting the seed. Do not forget to take care of the seedlings on time and properly, observe the watering and feeding regime.
Keep a close eye on tomato bushes and compare their modifications with descriptions of diseases. In the presence of pathologies, do not abuse chemicals. It is better to sacrifice a couple of infected bushes, throwing them away, and neutralize uninfected ones with folk remedies.